the Style Sheet in pdf file)
A Journal of Comparative Philosophy
uses The Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition) to settle
all matters of style. Manuscripts accepted for publication are subject to
nonsubstantive editing to bring them into conformity with The Chicago Manual.
Style on Assorted Contested Matters:
In a series of three or more items, Dao places a comma
after the penultimate item and the word “and” before the last item. For
example, “Confucius, Mencius, ZHU Xi
朱熹, and WANG Yangming
In forming the possessive of all names, Dao adds an apostrophe and an additional
“s” even if the name ends in “s,” such as “Adams’s,”
“Aquinas’s,” “Levinas’s,” and “Henry James’s,” with the exception
of “Jesus’,” “Confucius’,” “Mencius’,” and so on.
Abbreviations should not normally appear in the text. Write “for
example” rather than “e.g.”; and “that is” rather than “i.e.”
Contractions should also be avoided.
Dao authors should avoid beginning sentences with
coordinating conjunctions such as “And,” “But,” “Or,” “Nor,” and
“Yet.” Conjunctive adverbs may, of course, be used at the beginning of a
sentence to express the relationship of the new sentence to the preceding
thought: “However,” “Nonetheless,” “Therefore,” “Thus,”
“Moreover,” and so on.
Compound words allow room for debate. Please note, however, the
extremely helpful table of compound words provided in The Chicago Manual
(table 6.1, pp. 219-31). The Chicago Manual recommends that
compounds formed with the prefixes be written as closed compounds (one word,
unhyphenated): anti-, co-, inter-, meta-, mid-, multi-, neo-, post-, re-,
socio-, and trans-.
The Chicago Manual frowns on the abbreviations
“f.” and “ff.” Since 75f. should always mean 75-76, there is no reason
not to write 75-76. The plural abbreviation is more justifiable and more useful
if one wishes to be vague about exactly how extensive the discussion is, but the
writers of The Chicago Manual reason that scholars ought to be exact
rather than vague about such matters.
Dao uses inclusive, gender neutral language but is
tolerant of the multiple strategies authors have developed for dealing with the
demise of the generic “he” and “man” and asks only that each author
decide on one strategy and employ that strategy consistently throughout the
essay. Since Dao expects quotations to be precisely accurate in
reflecting the wording used by the source (however unfortunate that wording may
be in any respect), it is not necessary to insert “[sic]” in quotations when the
quoted author has used generic pronouns or such words as the collective noun
“man;” neither is it necessary to adjust past custom by inserting bracketed
inclusive amendments. Dao prefers to use “he and she” to “he/she”
if such a strategy is employed.
Regarding the positioning of punctuation marks with respect
to closing quotation marks, Dao always places periods or commas within
(before) the closing quotation mark, and colons and semi-colons outside (after)
the closing quotation mark. Question marks and exclamation points migrate
according to the sense of the sentence (if material that you are quoting has
internal quotations, the original positioning of punctuation marks must, of
course, be preserved even if it varies from the Dao style).
If a note number follows the quotation, it should be superscript and
should be placed after all the relevant punctuation and quotation marks. If a
parenthetical citation follows the quotation, it should be placed outside the
quotation marks, and the end punctuation of the sentence should be placed after
the citation rather than within the quotation marks. For example,
Specifically, this alternative object of our attention “should
be our conception of a good life” (Kekes: 294).3
Normally Dao uses single quotation marks only to indicate a quotation
within another quotation. In all other occasions, double quotation marks are
Quotations of three or more lines in the typescript text should be
treated as indented block quotations.
is, of course, exceptionally important that quotations be precisely accurate
and appropriately documented. The editor is entirely dependent on the integrity
and exactitude of contributing scholars to see that quotations are fair and
correct. The editor encourages all authors to review the sections in The
Chicago Manual of Style devoted to permissible changes (10.7-8), to ellipses
(10.48-63), and to “Interpolations and Alterations” (10.65-68). Words you
wish to emphasize should be italicized (do not use bold or underline), and if
the emphasis is yours and not the author’s, please acknowledge this in the
material is omitted from a quoted passage, that omission must, of course,
be acknowledged with ellipsis points. Use three points to indicate the omission
of words within a quoted sentence; use four points to indicate the omission of a
full sentence or more. Four points are also used when material omitted in the
middle of the passage is material that ends a sentence (three ellipsis points
plus the period that ends the sentence) or is material that begins a new
sentence (the first point is the period that ends the sentence, followed by
three points indicating the omission of material at the beginning of the next
sentence). According to The Chicago Manual, it is not necessary (and
often not desirable) to use ellipsis points at the beginning and end of
quotations; only in a few cases are ellipsis points required as an indication
that you are not beginning at the beginning of the quoted author’s sentence or
have not completed the last sentence of the quoted passage. Certainly where
quotations of obviously incomplete sentences are interwoven in your text,
ellipsis points would be needless clutter. However, if your quotation omits any
material that modifies or limits the meaning of the quoted words, ellipsis
points should be included. If, for example, the quoted passage begins with a
qualifying phrase or clause that you decide to omit as not pertinent to the
particular point you are making, that omission ought to be acknowledged.
some cases it is acceptable to alter capitalization in quoted material.
For example, the initial letter of a quotation may be changed to a capital or a
lowercase letter to fit the demands of the context, and such a change does not
require brackets; Dao authors may use their own discretion with respect
to such changes. However, an original lowercase letter following a four-point
ellipsis should not be changed to a capital letter unless that change is
acknowledged in brackets. In this second case, failure to acknowledge the change
might mislead a reader who is attempting to locate the material in the source.
III.1. Dao employs the author/date system
of citing sources (discussed in The Chicago Manual as style B). Documentation in the author/date system is provided by parenthetical citations
in the text, which are keyed to a bibliography of works cited that appears at
the end of the article.
parenthetical citations, when only one work of the author is listed
in the bibliography, simply
use the author’s last name and the page number(s) (if applicable) with a colon
between them, for example, “Tu: 235”; add the publication year after the author’s last name
if more than one work of the same author is listed in the bibliography, for
example, “Cua 1989: 123”; add the first name initial if two or more authors
have the same surname in the bibliography, for example, “D. Wright 1990:
III.3. In cases where the title of the text
instead of the author(s) of the text, such as Analects, Mencius, Zhuangzi,
is listed in the bibliography, of course, the italicized title of the text
should be used in the parenthetical citations (often in such cases more precise
book, chapter, verse numbers may be used instead of page numbers), for example,
“Mencius 6B6” (note that, unlike the citation with author, there is
no colon between the title of the text and the book, chapter, and/or section
number). If the title of the text in the bibliography is too long, the first one
or two words of text may be used in the in-text citation.
III.4. Notice that the punctuation mark
should be placed after the parenthetical citation if the quotation is within the
text, for example,
Mencius stated that “all that is expected of a junzi
However, the punctuation mark should be placed
before the parenthetical citation if the quotation is in an indented block, for
The sage does a thing when the time comes…. The study of
changing conditions and events is to be done at the time of response. The thing
to do is to keep the mind clear as a mirror and engage in moral reflection.
(Wang 1963: sec. 21)
III.5. As Dao adopts this author/date system,
only substantive footnotes (not endnotes) are used to offer essential
qualifications, clarifications, and replies to anticipated objections. If these
substantive footnotes themselves contain references and documentation, citations
included in these substantive notes should be cast in the same form used for
citations in the main text of the essay, with the exception that no blocked
quotation is used even if the cited passage is more than three lines long.
III.6. Except in unusual cases, both
citations and note numbers should be placed at the end of the sentence, not
somewhere in the middle.
IV.1. The bibliography at the end of the article is
simply titled “References.” It should include all and only works
cited in the article.
IV.2. Entries should be arranged alphabetically
according to the surnames of the authors. If two or more authors have the same
surname, they should be arranged alphabetically according to their given names.
If there are two or more works by the same author, they should be arranged
chronologically. If two or more are published in the same year, they should be
differentiated with small letters (for example, Cua 1989a; Cua 1989b) and
ordered alphabetically according to titles.
IV.3. Sometimes a scholar is cited who has not only
written original books and articles but has also (1) co-authored books and
articles and (2) edited (and/or co-edited) collections of articles. Co-authored
and edited works require a separate bibliographical entry and should not be
gathered with original works under a single listing of the scholar’s name.
Entries are arranged in this order:
(1) independently authored works, (2) co-authored works, (3) independently
edited works, and (4) co-edited works. For example,
James Turner. 1987. The Quest for Peace: Three Moral Traditions in Western
Cultural History. Princeton,
N.J., and Guildford, Surrey: Princeton University Press.
1990. “Introduction.” See Johnson and Kelsay 1990, xi-xviii.
James Turner, ed. 1985. The Bible in American Law, Politics, and Political
Rhetoric. Society of
Biblical Literature Centennial Series, vol. 6.
Philadelphia: Fortress Press; and Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press.
James Turner, and John Kelsay, eds. 1990. Cross, Crescent, and Sword: The
Justifiction and Limitation of War in Western and Islamic Tradition.
Contributions to the Study of Religion, no. 27. New York: Greenwood Press.
James Turner, and David H. Smith, eds. 1974. Love and Society: Essays in the
Ethics of Paul Ramsey. JRE
Studies in Religious Ethics, vol. 1. Missoula, Mont.: American Academy of
Religion and Scholars Press.
Robert Owen. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World
Political Economy. Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Robert Owen, and Joseph S. Nye Jr. 1977. Power and Interdependence: World
Politics in Transition. Boston:
Little, Brown and Co.
Robert Owen, and Stanley Hoffmann, eds. 1991. The New European Community:
Decision-Making and Institutional Change.
Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
IV.4. In cases where the identity of
author(s) of a text is either not clear,
unknown, contested, or otherwise normally not mentioned, then the italicized
title of the text should be alphabetically listed with other entries. See,
for example, the “Analects” entry below:
Roger T. and David L. Hall 2001. Focusing the Familiar: A Translation and
Philosophical Interpretation of the Zhongyong. Honolulu: University of
1971. In Confucius: Confucian Analects, The Great Learning & The Doctrine
of the Mean, trans. by James Legge. New
IV.5. The basic format of journal articles is
as follows (pay attention to the way a forthcoming article is treated):
Robert. 2001. “Two Forms of Comparative Philosophy.” Dao: A Journal of
Comparative Philosophy 1.1: 1-14.
A.S. 1979. “Dimension of Li (Propriety): Reflections on an Aspect of Hsün
Tzu’s Ethics.” Philosophy East & West 32.3: 279-294.
Forthcoming. “Ethical Significance of Shame: Insights of Aristotle and Xunzi.” Philosophy East & West.
IV.6. Below are examples of basic formats
for an example of a forthcoming book, see the entry on “Ivanhoe & Van
for an example of multiple authors or editors, see the same entry (pay attention
to the order of the given name and surname of the second author); for an example
of an item in a collection of works by one author (inclusive pages should be
indicated), see the entry on “James”; for an example of an item in an edited
collection by multiple authors, see the entry on “Walsh”:
Philip & Bryan Van Norden, eds. Forthcoming. Readings in Classical Chinese
Philosophy. New York: Seven Bridges Press.
Henry. 1986. “The Middle Years.” In The Figure in the Carpet and Other
Stories, edited by Frank
235-58. New York: Penguin.
Joel J. 1999. Learning from Asian Philosophy. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Sylvia I. 1988. “Forming the Heart: The Role of Love in Kierkegaard's
Thought.” In The Grammar of the Heart: New Essays in Moral Philosophy and
Theology, edited by Richard H. Bell, 234-56.
San Francisco: Harper and
IV.7. If several items are cited from a single
collection, this single collection should be listed, with all items in this
collection listed with reference to this collection. For example:
Robert Merrihew. 1993“Religious Ethics in a Pluralistic Society.”
See Outka and Reeder 1993, 93-113.
David. 1993“The Nature and Basis of Human Rights.”
See Outka and Reeder 1993, 73-92.
Gene, and John P. Reeder Jr., eds. 1993. Prospects for a Common Morality.
Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
John P., Jr. 1993. “Foundations without Foundationalism.”
See Outka and Reeder 1993, 191-214.
Richard. 1993. “The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy.”
See Outka and Reeder 1993, 254-78.
IV.8. Multivolume work can be listed in any
one of the following three ways:
James M. 1981-84. Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective. 2 vols. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
James M. 1981. Theology and Ethics. Vol. 1 of Ethics from a Theocentric
Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1984. Ethics and Theology. Vol 2 of Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
James M. 1981. Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective. Vol. 1, Theology
and Ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1984. Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective. Vol. 2, Ethics and
Theology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
IV.9. However, when the volumes are separately
titled and only one volume is used, multivolume works are listed in one
of the following two ways:
Reinhold. 1941. Human Nature. Vol.
1 of The Nature and Destiny of Man: A Christian Interpretation.
New York: Scribner's Sons.
Reinhold. 1941. The Nature and Destiny of Man: A Christian Interpretation.
Vol. 1, Human Nature. New York: Scribner’s Sons.
IV.10. When all volumes are used and/or the volumes
are not separately titled, follow the following example to list the multivolume
Irving. 1984-87. The Nature of Love.
3 vols. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
IV.11. For a conference paper, supply the
place, date, sponsoring organization, or occasion of the conference. For
Charles S. 1990. “Narrative Theology and Business Ethics: Story-Based
Management of Values.” Paper
presented at the symposium on A Virtuous Life in the Business Story, April 2-3,
at the University of Notre Dame.
For archival material, follow the following example:
Patrick J., S.J. 1984. “The Winter Dance of the Plateau Tribes.”
Oregon Province Archives. Gonzaga
University, Spokane, Washington.
dissertation entries differ depending on whether the dissertation has been obtained
from the university where it was written or from University Microfilms:
Christine Firer. 1989. “The Notion of ‘Power’ in Christian Social
Ph.D. Diss., University of Chicago Divinity School.
Jin Young. 1998. Deconstructive Framing: Sŏn Buddhism and Postmodern
Thought. Ph.D. Diss. State University of New York at Stony Brook. Ann Arbor,
Mich.: University Microfilms.
Chinese Characters and Their Romanizations:
names of Chinese persons, places, publishers, etc.,
Dao uses the
Romanization of their Chinese characters, followed by their original Chinese
characters. Special Chinese philosophical terms, as well as the titles of
Chinese publications, should be translated into English and followed by their
original Chinese characters.
V.2. Dao adopts
hanyu pingyin for Romanization
of all Chinese characters, except in quoted passages. In these quoted passages
where other ways of Romanization are used, the author may leave them unchanged
or convert them into hanyu pingyin. In the later case, the author should
indicate either at the end of the quotation or in a footnote that such
conversion has taken place. The Romanizations of philosophical terms should be
italicized, but those of proper names of persons, places, and publishers should
not. For example, “ren,” but “Qufu
V.3. Dao uses
traditional instead of
simplified Chinese characters.
V.4. In the main text and footnotes, the
appearance of Chinese characters, together with their
Romanizations, and their English translation may appear in either of the two
《大學》(The Great Learning);” or “The Great
V.5. In the
bibliography, the title of Chinese publications should be translated into English,
followed by their original Chinese characters, but no Romanization is needed.
& FU Wuquang
trans. 1997. New Translation of Han Fei Zi
order of the given name and surname of a Chinese
person in English has often been confusing. To avoid such
confusion, Dao adopts the following practice: using the Chinese way
of putting surname first, with all letters of the surname in upper case. For example,
we use “LI Zehou
instead of “Zehou Li
or “Li Zehou
However, if the Chinese author uses a western given name, Dao treats it as
an English name and no Chinese characters are provided, unless its hanyu pingyin is also provided. For example we use "David Wong" or
"Antonio Cua" instead of WONG David" or "CUA Antonio," but
it is acceptable to use "David
Wong (HUANG Dawei
Chinese authors who publish in
both Chinese and English may either have English names or use a different way of
Romanization of their names than adopted by this journal. In this case, in the
bibliography, their English works should be listed with the names under which
they were originally published without the Chinese characters of their names
following, while their Chinese publications should be listed according to the hanyu
pingyin of their Chinese names, followed by their original Chinese
characters; when both Chinese and English publications of the same author with
such names are listed in the same bibliography, a mutual reference to their
different names or different Romanizations of their names should be indicated.
Carsun (Junmei Zhang). 1957. The Development of Neo-Confucian Thought.
New Have: College and University Press.
Youlan (Yu-lan Fung)
1992. A History of Contemporary Chinese Philosophy
Hong Kong: Zhonghua Shuju
Yu-lan (Youlan Feng). 1952. A History of Chinese Philosophy. 2 vols.
Translated by Derk Bodde. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Junmai (Carsun Chang)
1997. “The outlook on Life
In Science and Outlook on Life
Edited. by Yadong Tushuguan