Director of Facilities Management
March 5, 2003
HVAC SEASONAL TRANSITION PLAN
I. PURPOSE: The purpose of this plan is to formally establish University guidelines for transitioning from the heating season to the cooling season, and from the cooling season back to the heating season. This plan will accomplish the following:
§ Define the targeted beginning dates and ending dates for the Heating and Cooling Seasons on campus.
§ Establish target temperature range standards for the heating and cooling seasons.
§ Provide a schedule, by building, for making the seasonal transition in a priority listing approved by the President’s Cabinet.
§ Show the HVAC preventive, predictive and corrective maintenance and repair actions required to meet the planned transition schedule.
§ Identify and provide time for repair activities identified during PM and inspection of HVAC equipment.
§ Insure that procedures are in effect to properly notify and communicate with all customers prior to each transition period.
a. Air Handling Unit--(AHU) – Used to supply heated or cooled air to building spaces through ductwork and supply diffusers. Consists of supply/return fan(s), heating coil, cooling coil, and filter section.
b. Building Automation System –(BAS)-- A computerized networked system of hardware and software configured to allow centralized control of building heating, cooling and ventilating, and monitor and provide energy management, as well as possibilities for expansion into controlling exterior lighting, the heat plant, utility meters, and other related facility systems.
c. Building Automation System Administrator – (BASA)--Facilities employee trained to monitor and correct system-identified problems, adjust BAS settings and facilitate system programming changes when required.
d. Chillers – (CH)--A piece of mechanical refrigeration equipment used to chill water which is circulated to Air Handling Units or similar types of HVAC equipment to provide cool air for space cooling.
e. Condensing Unit – (CU)--A piece of mechanical refrigeration equipment, located on the roof or on a concrete slab outside of the building, which provides liquid refrigerant to direct expansion (DX) coils used in AHUs or Split System AC units for space cooling.
f. Cooling Season –The annual period when all HVAC systems will be operated in the Cooling Mode. Targeted from approximately May 1st to October 15th of each year, buildings will be brought online into the cooling season in a phased approach.
g. Cooling Tower (CT)-- Used to reject excess heat from air conditioning systems to the environment from heat pumps and water-cooled chillers.
h. Direct Expansion (DX) Units--Direct expansion units (DX) are units similar
to home air-conditioning systems, though sized for larger institutional
applications. The application of DX units is limited by size and required
i. Evaporator— Mechanical equipment that assists in the cooling process.
j. Heating Season – The annual period of time when all HVAC systems will be
operated in the Heating Mode. Targeted from approximately October 16th to
April 30th of each year, buildings will be brought online into the heating
season in a phased approach.
k. HVAC – Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning – Refers to all equipment used to heat, cool, or provide fresh air to buildings, i.e. Chillers, Air Handling Units, Cooling Towers, Exhaust fans, Unit Heaters, etc.
l. Package Terminal Air Conditioning Unit—(PTAC)--A self-contained cooling unit which provides cooling to a single office or similar small space. Normally located in an outside wall below a window. These are the types of systems normally found in medium-grade hotel/motel rooms.
m. Split System AC – Small AC unit used to cool small individual spaces where central systems cannot be modified or where no central system exists. Limited application due to size, capacity, and maintenance and life cycle costs. However, this system is preferred over window units if applicable. These systems are normally provided for add-on computer and network room applications where the centralized system cannot be modified to take the heat load, or where no centralized system exists. Note: A split ductless system brings no fresh air into the space.
n. Transition Periods: During the Spring and Fall, daily temperatures may fluctuate from hot to cold. HVAC heating/cooling systems will be shut down for a short period to accomplish the transition – during which time the air handlers (AHUs) will be operated without heating or cooling to provide ventilation. Windows should be opened or closed to provide occupant comfort. University systems are not normally constructed to provide simultaneous heating and cooling due to excessive first costs and the inherent additional staffing required to operate and maintain such systems
o. Window AC – Self-contained cooling units which contain DX coil, fan, filter and condensing section in one small package.
III. BUILDING PRIORITIES
The priority list for building HVAC system transition was determined by analyzing the overall mission impact and inconvenience to the main customers, the students, and has been approved by the President and his Cabinet. The priority list of buildings during the transition periods are as defined below, with target dates projected based upon “normal” predicted annual weather patterns:
TRANSITION BY BUILDING NAME
HEATING ON COOLING ON
(Target Date—Oct. 15-20) (Target Date--May 1-5)
Old Main Old Main
University Place University Place
Berks South Dining Hall
Lehigh Rohrbach Library
Schuylkill Student Union Building
Beck Rickenbach R & L
Rothermel Schaeffer Auditorium
HEATING ON COOLING ON
(Target Date--Oct. 21–26) (Target Date--May 6-10)
South Dining Hall Boehm Science Building
Rohrbach Library DeFrancesco Building
Student Union Building Sharadin Building
Rickenbach Research & Learning Graduate Center
Schaeffer Auditorium Stratton Administration
Boehm Science Building Multi Cultural Center
DeFrancesco Building Admissions Building
Sharadin Art Building
Multi Cultural Center
HEATING ON COOLING ON
(Target Date--Oct.27-Nov. 1st) (Target Date-May 11-15)
Lytle Hall Lytle Hall Beekey Hall Beekey Hall
Kemp Building Kemp Building Keystone Hall Keystone Hall
Grim-Knedler Science Grim-Knedler Science
Note 1: Target dates are subject to modification based upon weather conditions, equipment problems, available staffing, and other possible circumstances and variables not always within the control of the Facilities organization.
IV. PREPARATION FOR COOLING SEASON The Mechanical Shop begins preventive maintenance (PM) on cooling systems starting on February 1st -through system start-up. Required PM includes servicing chillers, AHUs and cooling towers. Earlier preparation which would theoretically allow earlier turn-on of the AC systems on campus is not normally possible because 1) adding freeze-proof to the systems which require it (cooling tower based systems) is cost prohibitive and 2) the need to continue to service the heating systems and provide heat during this time prevents operation of the cooling systems.
A. COOLING SEASON – Generally, unless unusual adverse weather dictates, the cooling season is May 1st thru October 15th. Although April typically brings several days of unseasonably hot weather, the target cooling season dates are predicated upon average temperatures, not historically minimum or maximum temperatures for the month. Please see Appendix I - Monthly Averages and Records, for historical and average weather temperatures for this area. The Facilities Department’s Building Automated System Administrator (BASA) checks each building’s program and temperature set points for proper cooling.
B. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE – The Mechanical Shop in conjunction with the Electrical Shop will test, activate and switch to internal building hot water heaters after which the Central Heat Plant will stop producing steam. All Chillers, cooling towers, condensing units and air handling units will have Preventive Maintenance completed prior to the start of the Cooling Season, as well as completing all Preventive Maintenance of PTAC, Split System AC and Window AC units.
1. HVAC Cooling Equipment - The Preventive Maintenance checklist will be completed for each type of equipment as follows.
a. Chillers – Inspections and maintenance will be performed in accordance with each PM checklist as identified via work order through TMA, and required repairs will be identified and completed. As a minimum, the end caps will be removed, tubes inspected and cleaned, and repairs identified. Repairs will be made as soon as possible using either in-house or contract workers, dependent upon resource availability and extent of repairs or replacements required.
BUILDING EQUIPMENT CODE
South Dining Hall DN-CH
SUB NS-CH1 AND NS-CH2
Rohrbach Library RL-CH1 AND RL-CH-2
Boehm Science BH-CH
Research and Learning LC-CH
Sharadin Art SH-LC
b. Split Ductless System - The condensing unit for a split ductless system is mounted on the exterior of the building, and the evaporator (cooling section) and fan are normally wall mounted in the space. Most of these units operate year round and require no specific cooling season PM. Units should be checked quarterly and filters cleaned as needed. The condensing unit should be checked after heavy snowfalls during the winter, and periodically during the summer, to ensure snow or weeds do not block airflow thru the condensing unit, which would render the unit inoperable.
c. Cooling Towers – The Cooling Towers will be cleaned prior to performing any preventive maintenance. Inspections and maintenance will be performed in accordance with each PM checklist as identified via work order through TMA. As a minimum, the cooling towers will be cleaned at least once during the cooling season, and again at the end of the season after they are drained and treated with biocide. Cooling towers should not be filled until May 1st (or later if hard freeze is forecast). Repairs will be made as soon as possible using either in-house or contract workers, dependent upon resource availability and extent of repairs or replacements required.
BUILDING EQUIPMENT CODE
South Dining Hall DN-CT
Rohrbach Library RL-CT
Boehm Science BH-CT
Research and Learning LC-CT
Sharadin Art SH-CT
University Place UP-CT
Old Main OM-CT
Graduate Center GC-CT
Grim Science GR-CT
d. Air Handling Units – The Air Handling Units (AHU) are located either in building mechanical rooms or mounted on the roof. The AHUs are used for heating, cooling and ventilating numerous spaces. Heat sources may be steam, hot water, electric or natural gas. Cooling is provided by either refrigerant (DX) or chilled water coils. AHUs require annual PM. Inspections and maintenance will be performed in accordance with each PM checklist as identified via work order through TMA. Due to the large number of units, the PM will be accomplished throughout the year as weather permits. The Supervisor and Assistant Director of Maintenance will schedule this work. AHUs have to be shut down in order to accomplish PM work properly and customers will be notified when this is to take place.
Building Air Handling Unit Locations
South Dining Hall Multiple units, mechanical rooms + rooftop
SUB Multiple units, mechanical rooms + rooftop
Rohrbach Library Multiple units, mechanical rooms
Boehm Science Multiple units, rooftop, mech. room
DeFrancesco Multiple units, mechanical rooms
Research and Learning Multiple units, roof top and mech. room
Sharadin Art Multiple units, exterior, mech. room + rooftop
Admin Building Multiple units, rooftop and mech. room
Schaeffer Auditorium Mechanical room
Lytle Hall Mechanical room
Beekey Roof top
Kemp Roof top
Keystone Hall Roof top
Grim Science Mechanical room
e. Window A/C Units- The only PM required is changing or cleaning the air filter 2 or 3 times a year. Pre-season maintenance consists of removing plastic sheeting (if used to prevent infiltration during winter), and operational check of the unit. Window units are discouraged and limited to their application due to energy costs, short life cycle, and noise and maintenance and repair issues.
C. HOT WATER CONVERSION - Prior to the Heating Plant steam shutdown, the Mechanical Shop will activate each building’s stand-alone electric or gas hot water system. The BASA and/or Controls Technician will shut down all heating programs and start up all cooling system programs and temperature settings – at which time the Mechanical Shop personnel will perform an on-site inspection of each building’s cooling system to confirm proper start-up as appropriate, as noted in Appendix II.- Master Checklist for Heating to Cooling Transition.
D. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE - Consolidated start-up and shutdown schedule is provided at Appendix II - Master Checklist for Heating to Cooling Transition.
E. COOLING TEMPERATURE STANDARD - Based on composite requirements including Monthly Average Temperatures (Appendix I), ASHRAE RP-884, and the SSHE Board of Governor’s Policy 2002-01, Energy Management And Conservation, the following target and acceptable temperature ranges have been set. If the space temperature is within this range, the space will be considered to be adequately cooled and no action will be taken.
Optimum Target and Acceptable Ranges of Operative Temperature for Persons Engaged in Light, Primarily Sedentary Activity Considering Standard Personal Environment to be Light Slacks, Short Sleeve Shirt, and Office Chair.
Optimum Temperature (Target)—74 degrees
Acceptable Operative Temperature Range—70 degrees to 78 degrees
Starting in CY 2003, energy setbacks will be investigated for facilities on campus to help meet provisions of the SSHE Strategic Energy Plan and BOG Policy 2002-01. Setbacks would be reviewed for application in classroom buildings and general administrative spaces for weekdays from approximately 10:00 PM until 6:00 AM and also on weekends starting Friday night at 10:00 PM until Monday morning at about 6:00 AM. With all systems operating properly, our review will determine if these setbacks will allow the building to cool down enough from a long hot weekend – and calculate what setback temperature range is prudent. Special consideration will be given on how to handle “special exceptions” such as camps and conferences or staff members coming in on weekends.
V. PREPARATION FOR HEATING SEASON The Mechanical Shop performs preventive maintenance from June 1st until system activation. This includes servicing all heat exchangers, heating hot water pumps, domestic hot water pumps and heat exchangers and condensate receivers/pumps. The Central Heat Plant will start producing steam on or about Oct. 1st and will bring the steam distribution mains up to temperature on the South Campus and then the North Campus. All steam lines are planned to be activated by October 15th. The Mechanical Shop will work in conjunction with the Heat Plant to bring all buildings on-line in accordance with Appendix III. - Master Checklist for Cooling to Heating Transition.
A. HEATING SEASON – Generally, unless unusual adverse weather dictates, the heating season is Oct 16th thru April 30th. Preventive and corrective maintenance will be completed between June 1st and until system activation. The Facilities Department’s Building Automation Systems Administrator (BASA) checks each building’s program and temperature set points for both heat and hot water.
B. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE – The Mechanical Shop in conjunction with the Heating Plant will test, activate and switch to campus-wide steam heated building hot water heaters after which each internal building hot water system will be shut down. All heating pumps, exchangers, condensate receivers, steam traps, heating valves and PRV’s are checked for operation, serviced and repaired as needed - prior to the start of the heating season. The heating start-up/PM schedule is provided in Appendix III – Master Checklist for Cooling to Heating Transition.
C. HOT WATER CONVERSION - After visual inspection of each boiler,
all electric and gas hot water systems are shut down. All buildings will
convert to the steam system to provide domestic hot water.
E. HEATING TEMPERATURE STANDARD- Based on composite requirements including Monthly Average Temperatures (Appendix I)- Monthly Temperature Averages and Records), ASHRAE RP-884, and the SSHE Board of Governor’s Policy 2002-01, Energy Management And Conservation, the following target and acceptable temperature ranges have been set. If the space temperature is within this range, the space will be considered to be adequately heated and no action will be taken.
Optimum Target and Acceptable Ranges of Operative Temperature for Persons Engaged in Light, Primarily Sedentary Activity Considering Standard Personal Environment to be Heavy Slacks, Long Sleeve Shirt, Sweater and Office Chair.
Optimum Temperature (Target)—72 degrees
As with the cooling season, starting in CY 2003, energy setbacks will be investigated for facilities on campus to help meet provisions of the SSHE Strategic Energy Plan and BOG Policy 2002-01. Setbacks would be reviewed for application in classroom buildings and general administrative spaces for weekdays from approximately 10:00 PM until 6:00 AM and also on weekends from Friday at 10:00 PM until Monday at about 6:00 AM. With all systems operating properly, our review will determine if these setbacks will allow the building to heat up enough from a long cold weekend – and calculate what setback temperature range is prudent. Special consideration will be given on how to handle “special exceptions” such as conferences, events or staff members coming in on weekends.
F. PERSONAL HEATING EQUIPMENT - Supplemental electric space heaters are discouraged because of their energy inefficiency and safety risks. However, if space heaters are to be used, they must be used in accordance with the guidelines contained in Appendix VI, University Guidelines for the Use of Supplemental Portable Space Heaters. For residence halls, separate procedures must be followed in accordance with the Residence Hall Portable Space Heater Usage Guidelines (Appendix VII).
VI. CUSTOMER NOTIFICATION – The Facilities Management Department will
notify all building occupants two weeks prior to the scheduled transition to allow
occupants sufficient time to prepare. This notice will be coordinated with the
Housing and Residence Life Office prior to notifying Dormitory residents as to
each building’s specific situation. In addition, daily heating and cooling
updates by building (Appendix IV & V) will be provided to the Facilities Work
Control Center so that their staff can accurately inform customer callers as to the
exact status of their particular building – including an estimated “target” date for
start-up. At the beginning of each heating and cooling season, the information provided at Appendix VIII will be sent to the Daily Brief by the Vice President of Finance and Administration.